Learning to recognize patterns and continue them is a skill I loved teaching in preschool, seeing that light bulb go off when they figured out the next object in the pattern never ceased to amaze me. This combines that with some hand muscle building and fine motor work as kids have to click the links together .
You will need multiple colors of shower curtain rings, and a bowl to place the extras in.
Start with simple patterns.
If children have already been introduced to patterning make a few , leave the extras and ask them to continue the patterns,
For expert patterners - give them the bowl and ask them to create a pattern for you to continue.